In addressing the history of counseling we want to divide the topic into two sections, secular and Christian.
Secular. The history of counseling had its origins, initially in religion, later in philosophy, and later nevertheless in medicine. Religion and philosophy asked quite a few of the identical inquiries: “Exactly where did I come from? Exactly where am I going? Why am I right here?” Medicine on the other hand tends to ask the query “Are you covered by insurance coverage?” From time to time, the members of a neighborhood would endure from the vicissitudes of life. At such occasions, they would seek assistance from their priest, sensible man, or witch physician. Generally all 3 had been offices had been identified in a single individual. Normally the issues they faced had been of two types grief more than the loss of a loved a single, or guilt associated to the trouble of incorrect behavior, often referred to as sin.
There had been other issues of course, ranging from appreciate sickness, to anxiousness, to madness. Such extraordinary issues referred to as for extraordinary options. Appreciate sickness had its potions, and anxiousness its elixirs and counsel, whilst madmen had been usually viewed as to be touched by the gods, and if not honored they had been at worse driven from their neighborhood. Hannibal, Alexander, and Caesar with their bouts of epilepsy are examples of the former, whereas King David (I Samuel 21:10-15) and the maniac of Gadara (Luke eight:26-39) are examples of the later.
Such was the order of items for millennia. On the other hand, as populations grew and religions changed, madness started to be looked upon with much less tolerance. In time, “mad homes” came into existence to deal with the impatience and worry of society with such people today.
It was about this time that psychiatry and psychology started to make their presence recognized. Each had their origins in 19th century Europe. On the other hand, of the two, psychology was far a lot more a solution of science than was psychiatry. On the other hand, each had been founded in the secular humanism of a Europe turned cold to the gospel of Christ and thereby far outdoors the pale of orthodox Christianity.
Christian. Christian counseling has been a element of the operate of ministry from the origin of the Church. “Each and every considering that apostolic occasions, counseling has occurred in the Church as a all-natural function of corporate spiritual life.” Paul produced it clear that he viewed as the household of God competent to counsel a single yet another when the have to have arose. He mentioned, “I myself am convinced, my brothers, that you yourselves are complete of goodness, comprehensive in know-how and competent to instruct (counsel) a single yet another” (Romans 15:14 NIV).
Like the assisting mission of the pagans about them, Christianity also addressed the issues of grief and sin, despite the fact that with significantly diverse counsel on how to deal with these issues.
The Reformation, and later the Puritan movement in England and American saw a considerable return by Christianity to the authority of the bible as the only supply of “life and godliness.” What characterized the Puritans in specific was a sensible application of the Word to the issues of life. In this sense, Christian counseling started to take on new significance. Quite a few functions stand out as exceptional representatives of this flow of beneficial counsel to the Church. They are, Richard Baxter's A Christian Directory, Thomas Brooks's Valuable Treatments Against Satan's Devices, Jonathan Edwards's A Treatise Regarding Religious Affections, and Ichabod Spencer's A Pastor's Sketches. Substantially of these writings are what we may contact “case study” in style.
Nonetheless, in time, the message of the church grew dim, and the void developed by a Church with couple of answers, was address by inventive minds with humanistic convictions. Foremost amongst this crowd was Sigmund Freud a doctor from Vienna, Austria. Operating not merely from unchristian, but essentially anti-Christian premises, Freud postulated a humanity with out sin, helpless victims of their parents' failures. For a globe struggling to cost-free itself from a theological bondage of Reformed theology which produced mankind entirely accountable for their moral failures, the blame shifting of the new psychologists and psychiatrists did not prove to be resistible. Europe and America in the 19th and 20th centuries commence to flock to the answers of the inquiries of the dilemmas of life posited by these males.
In time, Christian ministers started to be conscious that they had been no longer looked to for answers on issues of living, as they after had been. Certainly, the unspoken consensus was that Christianity did not have answers for these new issues. Not only did the humanists think this Christians themselves came to hold the identical position. The liberals in the Church addressed these really serious issues of living by Christians, either by “deferring and referring” to “these effectively educated to deal with 'real' issues,” (psychologists or psychiatrist) or by acquiring the psychological education that would equip them to this job. The conservatives saw the trouble as a lack of commitment, bible study, prayer, and faithful attendance of all the church solutions. In other words, they denied its existence.
In the '60's a new breed of evangelical, represented by Bruce Narramore, presented an option to the capitulation of liberalism on the a single hand, and the denial of fundamentalism on the other. Their answer was the “Christianization” of psychiatry and psychology. Their rallying cry was “all truth is God's truth.” With this banner held higher, they boldly attacked the gates of neurosis, snatching brands from the mass of the depressed. Orthodox Christians flocked to study the new books harmonizing orthodox Christianity and the humanism of psychology and psychiatry.
This option captured the imagination of the Church it continues to do so to this day. On the other hand, in the early 70's a new method was pioneered by a professor of sensible theology at Westminster Theological Seminary, Dr. Jay E. Adams. In response to the responsibilities provided him to teach counseling to the students at Westminster, he created a counseling approach, which he dubbed nouthetic counseling. Basically, he asserted that in scripture the Christian has anything he requires for “life and Godliness.” The trouble with the Church, he stated, was that it had not produced the scripture helpful by implies of appropriate exegesis, and functionally relevant with helpful applications to the issues of life.
His writings began a quiet, slow increasing, revolution in quite a few conservative/orthodox churches. It is this return to the bible that has brought Christianity complete circle in its application of scripture to the sensible and complicated issues of life.